Lesson 20
Reinforcing the knowledge of structures


A house doesn’t fall if it has been built on solid structures.


To reinforce the knowledge of structures we will use three techniques:


    1 - Short translations

      The first technique is short translations from Spanish to English.

      The reason why I have chosen this method as the first one is very simple. If you are not an advanced student, every time you try to speak English, you translate from Spanish to English. If you don’t know exactly what you have to say, your chances of being wrong are about 99%.


      What kind of short translations will we do?


      We will do short translations inspired by the textbooks of the First Certificate and the CAE. This will allow you to get a solid base if you wish to prepare any of these Cambridge exams in the future.


        2 - Listening to the audiobook

          We will especially focus on chapters 10 to 19.

           

            3 - Watching videos of public speakers on Youtube

              This is one of the most fun and effective ways to increase your knowledge of structures as you can combine listening with watching the way public speakers use an advanced level of the language.




              1 - Short translations


              Learn 4 short translations by heart every day during the next 10 days.


              Day 1

              Spanish English Phonetics Approximate Pronunciation

              Si ella hubiese explicado sus razones la habríamos entendido

              If she had explained her reasons, we would have understood her.

              | ɪf ʃi həd ɪkˈspleɪnd hə ˈriːzənz | wi wʊd həv ˌʌndəˈstʊd hə |

              If shi had ek’spleind her rissonss wui wud hav andérstud her

              ¿Qué habrías hecho si hubieses estado en mi lugar?

              What would you have done if you had been in my shoes?

              | ˈwɒt wʊd ju həv dʌn ɪf ju həd biːn ɪn maɪ ʃuːz |

              Wuát wud iu hav don if iu had biin in mai shuss?

              Yo habría venido inmediatamente si me hubieses llamado (por teléfono)

              I would have come immediately if you had rung me.

              ˈaɪ wʊd həv kʌm ɪˈmiːdɪətli ɪf ju həd rʌŋ miː |

              Ai wud hav kam I’midietli if iu had rang mi

              A menos que algo vaya mal, estaremos allí no más tarde de las 5.

              Unless something goes wrong we’ll be there no later than five o’clock.

              ənˈles ˈsʌmθɪŋ ɡəʊz rɒŋ wil bi ðə nəʊ ˈleɪtə ðən faɪv əˈklɒk |

              An’les sámzing góuss rong wuil bi der no léiter dan fáiv o’klok


              Day 2

              Spanish English Phonetics Approximate Pronunciation

              La historia se remonta a al menos 500 años

              The story goes back at least 500 years.

              | ðə ˈstɔːri ɡəʊz ˈbæk ət liːst faɪv ˈhʌndrəd ˈjiəz |

              De sstori góuss bak at list fáiv hándred iers

              La leyenda data de 1960 cuando una pareja fue encontrada muerta en la casa.

              The legend dates from 1960 when a couple was found dead in the house.

              ðə ˈledʒənd deɪts frəm ˌnaɪnˈtiːn ˈsɪksti wen ə ˈkʌpl̩ wəz faʊnd ded ɪn ðə ˈhaʊs |

              De léyend déits from nain’ting síxti wuen a kápel wass fáund ded in de haus

              Puede que haya sido una broma

              It may/might have been a joke.

              ɪt meɪ maɪt əv biːn ə dʒəʊk |

              It méi/máit hav bin a yóuk

              El delicuente ha sido divisado por gente del barrio

              The criminal has been spotted by local people.

              ðə ˈkrɪmɪnl̩ həz biːn ˈspɒtɪd baɪ ˈləʊkl̩ ˈpiːpl̩ |

              De kríminel hass bin sspotid bái de lócal pípol

               

              Day 3

              Spanish English Phonetics Approximate Pronunciation

              Si no deseabas ir ¿por qué le llamaste? (A él)

              If you had no desire to go why did you call him?

              ɪf ju həd nəʊ dɪˈzaɪə tə ɡəʊ waɪ dɪd ju kɔːl ɪm |

              If iu had nou di ssair tu gou wuai did iu kol him?

              Para cuando lleguemos el tren ya se habrá ido

              When we arrive the train will have left.

              wen wi əˈraɪv ðə treɪn wl̩ həv left |

              Wuen wi arraiv de tréin wuil hav left

              ¿Qué es todo este lío?

              What is all the fuss about?

              ˈwɒt s ɔːl ðə fʌs əˈbaʊt |

              Wuat iss ol de fas a’baut?

              Suponiendo que llegas a casa pronto, podremos quedar con ellos para cenar

              Assuming you get home early, we’ll be able to meet them for dinner.

              əˈsjuːmɪŋ tə ˈɡet həʊm ˈɜːli | wil bi ˈeɪbl̩ tə miːt ðəm fə ˈdɪnə |

              A’suming  ju get houm erli wuil bi éibol tu mit dem for diner.




              Day 4

              Spanish English Phonetics Approximate Pronunciation

              Más vale que ordenes tu habitación antes de que lleguen tus padres

              You’d better tidy up your room before your parents arrive.

              | jud ˈbetə ˈtaɪdi ʌp jə ruːm bɪˈfɔː jə ˈpeərənts əˈraɪv |

              Iud béter táidiap ior rum bífor ior pérents a´raiv

              Ojalá no te hubiese visto

              If only I hadn’t seen you.

              ɪf ˈəʊnli ˈaɪ ˈhædnt ˈsiːn ju |

              If ónli ái hadnt sin iu

              Si te marchaste pronto ¿por qué no estabas en casa a la hora de cenar?

              If you left early, how come you weren’t home for dinner?

              ɪf ju left ˈɜːli | ˈhaʊ kʌm ju wɜːnt həʊm fə ˈdɪnə |

              If iu left érli, hau kam iu wuernt hóm for díner?

              Si te vas a la jungla te estás aventurando a lo desconocido.

              If you go to the jungle you are venturing into the unknown.

              ɪf ju ɡəʊ ðə ˈdʒʌŋɡl̩ ju ə ˈventʃərɪŋ ˈɪntə ði ˌʌnˈnəʊn |

              If iu góu tú de yángel iú ár véntering íntu di an’noun

               

              Day 5

              Spanish English Phonetics Approximate Pronunciation

              Con eso vale

              That will do.

              ðət wl̩ duː |

              Dat wuíl du

              No sé si él lo logrará

              I don’t know if he will make it.

              ˈaɪ dəʊnt nəʊ ɪf hi wl̩ ˈmeɪk ɪt |

              Ai dóun nóu if hi wuil méikit

              Me parece que el último es el más apropiado

              It seems to me that the latter is the most appropriate.

              ɪt ˈsiːmz tə miː ðət ðə ˈlætə z ðə məʊst əˈprəʊpriət |

              It símss tu mi dat de láter iss de móust a’propiet

              Esto es lo último en gafas

              This is the ultimate in glasses.

              ðɪs ɪz ði ˈʌltɪmət ɪn ˈɡlɑːsɪz |

              Dis iss dí áltimét in glasess

               

              Day 6

              Spanish English Phonetics Approximate Pronunciation

              El delicuente anda todavía suelto

              The criminal is still on the loose.

              | ðə ˈkrɪmɪnl̩ z stɪl ɒn ðə luːs |

              De kriminal iss sstil on de lus

              Me pareció que su (de él) discurso fue mejor que la media en su totalidad

              I thought his speech was better than average on the whole.

              ˈaɪ ˈθɔːt ɪz spiːtʃ wəz ˈbetə ðən ˈævərɪdʒ ɒn ðə həʊl |

              Ai zót hiss sspicj wuáss béter dan ávrech on de hol.

              Los médicos siempre deben estar preparados para lo inesperado

              Doctors have to be prepared for the unexpected.

              ˈdɒktəz həv tə bi prɪˈpeəd fə ði ˌʌnɪkˈspektɪd |

              Dókterss hav tu bi préperd for de ánekspektid

              Esto es fuera de lo común

              This is out of the ordinary

              ðɪs ɪz aʊt əv ði ˈɔːdɪnri |

              Dis iss áut of de órdinari

               

              Day 7

              Spanish English Phonetics Approximate Pronunciation

              Soy bueno para las matemáticas

              I’m good at maths.

              | aɪm ɡʊd ət mæθs |

              Aim gud at mazs

              Está ansioso por verte

              He is keen on seeing you.

              hi z kiːn ɒn ˈsiːɪŋ ju |

              Hi iss kiin on siing iu

              Se me olvidó felicitarlo para su (de él) cumpleaños

              I forgot to congratulate him on his birthday.

              ˈaɪ fəˈɡɒt tə kənˈɡrætʃʊleɪt ɪm ɒn ɪz ˈbɜːθdeɪ |

              Ai for’gat tu kon’gratuleit him on hiss bérzdei

              En la vida hay que estar a las duras y a las maduras

              In life you have to take the rough with the smooth.

              ɪn laɪf ju həv tə teɪk ðə rʌf wɪð ðə smuːð |

              In láif iu hav tu teik de raf wuíz de smuz



              Day 8

              Spanish English Phonetics Approximate Pronunciation

              Ella es la responsable de este departamento

              She is (the one) responsible for this department.

              | ʃi z ðə wʌn rɪˈspɒnsəbl̩ fə ðɪs dɪˈpɑːtmənt |

              Shí iss de wuan rís ponsebo for diss dípartment

              No sé cuál es el sentido de todo esto

              I don’t know what the point of all this is.

              ˈaɪ dəʊnt nəʊ ˈwɒt ðə pɔɪnt əv ɔːl ðɪs ɪz |

              Ái doúnt nou wuat de póint of ol dis iss

              Ya es hora de que te ganes la vida por tu cuenta

              It’s about time you make a living on your own.

              ɪts əˈbaʊt ˈtaɪm ju ˈmeɪk ə ˈlɪvɪŋ ɒn jər əʊn |

              It’s a´baut táim iu méik a líving on ior óun

              Nos enfrentamos a un despido después de la huelga

              We are facing the sack after the strike.

              wi ə ˈfeɪsɪŋ ðə sæk ˈɑːftə ðə straɪk |

              Wui ár féising de sak áfter de straik

               

              Day 9

              Spanish English Phonetics Approximate Pronunciation

              Él es más rápido que yo haciendo eso

              He is quicker (at) doing this than I am.

              hi z ˈkwɪkər ət ˈduːɪŋ ðɪs ðən ˈaɪ æm |

              Hi iss kuíker at duing diss dan ái am

              Cuanto más tiempo estoy sentado aquí, menos ganas tengo de ponerme de pie

              The longer I sit here, the less I feel like standing up.

              ðə ˈlɒŋɡə ˈaɪ sɪt hɪə | ðə les ˈaɪ fiːl ˈlaɪk ˈstændɪŋ ʌp |

              De lónger ai sit hir de les ai fil láik sstanding ap

              Parecía que el anciano no entendía lo que estaba ocurriendo

              It seems as the old man didn’t know what was going on.

              ɪt ˈsiːmz əz ði əʊld mæn ˈdɪdnt nəʊ ˈwɒt wəz ˈɡəʊɪŋ ɒn |

              It simss ass di ould man didn’t nóu wuat wuass góing on

              Él trabajó como contable en la empresa la mayor parte de su vida

              He worked as an accountant in the company for most of his life.

              hi wɜːkt əz ən əˈkaʊntənt

              ɪn ðə ˈkʌmpəni fə məʊst əv ɪz laɪf |

              Hi wuórkt ass an a’kauntant in de kámpani for móust of his láif

               

              Day 10

              Spanish English Phonetics Approximate Pronunciation

              Ellos no estuvieron a la altura  de las expectativas

              They fell short of the expectations.

              | ˈðeɪ fel ʃɔːt əv ði ˌekspekˈteɪʃn̩z |

              Dei fel short of di ekspek’teishonss

              Seguro que llueve más tarde

              It’s bound to rain later.

              ɪts baʊnd tə reɪn ˈleɪtə |

              Its báind tu réin leiter

              Está previsto que lleguemos a las siete

              We are due to arrive at seven o’clock.

              wi ə djuː tu əˈraɪv ət ˈsevn̩ əˈklɒk |

              Wuí ar du tu áraiv at séven o’klok

              Se le tiene en alta estima

              He is highly thought of.

              hi z ˈhaɪli ˈθɔːt ɒv |

              Hi iss háili zotof




               

              2- Listening to the audiobook


              Listen chapter 10 to 19 and try to memorise four sentences from each chapter


              Chapter 10

              Spanish English Phonetics Approximate Pronunciation

              El cuadro envejece; Dorian no

              The picture gets old; Dorian doesn’t.

              | ðə ˈpɪktʃə ˈɡets əʊld | ˈdɔːiən ˈdʌznt |

              De pikcher gets ould, dórian dassent

              A pesar de los años, conservaba una extraordinaria belleza

              Despite his years he conserved his extraordinary beauty.

              dɪˈspaɪt ɪz ˈjiəz hi kənˈsɜːvd ɪz ɪkˈstrɔːdn̩ri ˈbjuːti |

              Di´spait hiss ierss hi hi kon’servd hiss ek’straordinari biuti

              Cuanto más sabía, más quería saber

              The more he knew, the more he wanted to know.

              ðə mɔː hi njuː | ðə mɔː hi ˈwɒntɪd tə nəʊ |

              De mor hi niu, de mor hi wuantid tu nou

              Una o dos veces al mes abria las puertas de su casa

              Once or twice a month he would open the doors of his house.

              wʌns ɔː twaɪs ə mʌnθ hi wʊd ˈəʊpən ðə dɔːz əv ɪz ˈhaʊs |

              Wuans or tuais a monz hi wud ópen de dorss of hiss háus

               

              Chapter 11

              Spanish English Phonetics Approximate Pronunciation

              Sintió miedo y no supo porqué

              He felt afraid and he didn’t know why.

              | hi felt əˈfreɪd ənd hi ˈdɪdnt nəʊ waɪ |

              Hi fel a’freid and hi didn’t nóu wuai

              ¡Qué suerte habernos cruzado!

              How lucky to have come across you.

              ˈhaʊ ˈlʌki tə həv kʌm əˈkrɒs ju |

              Hau laki tu hav kam a´kros iu

              Permítame entrar por un momento

              Let me in for a moment.

              let miː ɪn fər ə ˈməʊmənt |

              Letmi in for a móument

              ¿Qué tienen que ver esas historias conmigo?

              What do all these stories have to do with me?

              ˈwɒt də ɔːl ðiːz ˈstɔːrɪz həv tə də wɪð miː |

              Wuat du ol diss sstoris háv tu du wuiz me?



              Chapter 12

              Spanish English Phonetics Approximate Pronunciation

              La lámpara producía sombras en la pared

              The lamp produced shadows on the wall.

              | ðə læmp prəˈdjuːst ˈʃædəʊz ɒn ðə wɔːl |

              De lámp pro’dust shádous on de wuol

              Descorra esa cortina y verá la mía.

              Draw back this curtain and see mine.

              drɔː ˈbæk ðɪs ˈkɜːtn̩ ənd ˈsiː maɪn |

              Dro bak dis kérten and si máin

              El horror no había podido ocultar toda su extraordinaria belleza.

              The horror hadn’t been able to hide all that extraordinary beauty.

              ðə ˈhɒrə ˈhædnt biːn ˈeɪbl̩ tə haɪd ɔːl ðət ɪkˈstrɔːdn̩ri ˈbjuːti |

              De hóror hándnt bin éibol tu háid ol de ek’straordinari bíuti

              Todos llevamos dentro el cielo y el infierno

              Each of us has heaven and hell in him.

              iːtʃ əv əz həz ˈhevn̩ ənd hel ɪn ɪm |

              Ich of ass has héven and hel in him

               

              Chapter 13

              Spanish English Phonetics Approximate Pronunciation

              Él había decidido no pensar en lo sucedido

              He had decided not to think about what had happened .

              | hi həd dɪˈsaɪdɪd nɒt tə ˈθɪŋk əˈbaʊt ˈwɒt həd ˈhæpənd |

              Hi had di’saidid not tu zink a’baut wuát hapend

              Su amistad terminó de repente

              Their friendship ended suddenly.

              ðeə ˈfrendʃɪp ˈendɪd sʌdn̩li |

              Der fréndshio endid sádenli

              Era una cuestión de vida o muerte

              It was a question of life and death.

              ɪt wəz ə ˈkwestʃən əv laɪf ənd deθ |

              It wuass a kueshion of láif and déz

              Lo que tiene que hacer es destruir el cadáver que está arriba

              What you have to do is to destroy the corpse which is upstairs.

              ˈwɒt ju həv tə də z tə dɪˈstroɪ ðə kɔːps wɪtʃ ɪz ˌʌpˈsteəz |

              Wuat iu hav tu du iss tu di’stro de kórps wuich is ap’sterss

               

              Chapter 14

              Spanish English Phonetics Approximate Pronunciation

              Estaba muy nervioso, pero sus modales eran tan elegantes y naturales como siempre

              He was very nervous, but his manners were as grateful and natural as ever.

              | hi wəz ˈveri ˈnɜːvəs | bət ɪz ˈmænəz wər əz ˈɡreɪtfəl ənd ˈnætʃrəl əz ˈevə |

              Hi wuass veri nérves bat hiss máners wuer ass gréitful and násheral ass éver

              Pero en la cena no pudo comer nada

              But at dinner he couldn’t eat anything.

              bət ət ˈdɪnə hi ˈkʊdnt iːt ˈeniθɪŋ |

              Bat at díner hi kudnt it enizing

              Creo que está enamorado

              I think he is in love.

              ˈaɪ ˈθɪŋk hi z ɪn lʌv |

              Ai zink hi iss in lov

              Me hace sentir bien; mejor que la medicna que me recetan

              You make me feel well; better than the medicine they prescribe.

              ju ˈmeɪk miː fiːl wel | ˈbetə ðən ðə ˈmedsn̩ ˈðeɪ prɪˈskraɪb |

              Iu méik mi fiil wuel béter dan de médisin déi préskraib

               

              Chapter 15

              Spanish English Phonetics Approximate Pronunciation

              Le ardía la garganta y sus delicadas manos se retorcían nerviosas

              His throat burned and his delicate hands twitched nervously.

              hɪz θrəʊt bɜːnd ənd ɪz ˈdelɪkət hændz twɪtʃt ˈnɜːvəsli |

              Hiss zróut bernd and his déliket handss tuícht nérvesli

              Vio a un marinero extendido sobre una mesa

              He saw a sailor sprawled across a table.

              hi ˈsɔːr ə ˈseɪlə sprɔːld əˈkrɒs ə ˈteɪbl̩ |

              Hi so a seilor sprold a’kros a teibol

              Dos mujeres molestaban a un anciano

              Two women were teasing an old man.

              tuː ˈwɪmɪn wə ˈtiːzɪŋ ən əʊld mæn |

              Tu wuimen wuer tising an old man

              Él respiró profundamente y tembló de placer

              He breathed deeply and trembled with pleasure.

              hi briːðd ˈdiːpli ənd ˈtrembl̩d wɪð ˈpleʒə |

              Hi brid dípli and trémbold wuiz plésher

               

              Chapter 16

              Spanish English Phonetics Approximate Pronunciation

              No me lo recuerde

              Don’t remind me of that.

              | dəʊnt rɪˈmaɪnd miː əv ðæt |

              Dount rímaind mi of dat

              Dorian está bastante inaguantable esta noche

              Dorian is quite unbearable tonight.

              ˈdɔːiən z kwaɪt ʌnˈbeərəbl̩ təˈnaɪt |

              Dorian iss kuáit an’bearabol túnait

              ¿Y por qué se enfada?

              And why does she get angry?

              ənd waɪ dəz ʃi ˈɡet ˈæŋɡri |

              And wuái dass shi get ángri?

              Cada triunfo crea un enemigo

              Every triumph creates an enemy.

              ˈevri ˈtraɪəmf kriːˈeɪts ən ˈenəmi |

              Évri traimf kríeits an énemi



              Chapter 17

              Spanish English Phonetics Approximate Pronunciation

              También pensaba que quizá solo era fruto de su imaginación

              He also thought it was just a figment of his imagination.

              | hi ˈɔːlsəʊ ˈθɔːt ɪt wəz dʒəst ə ˈfɪɡmənt əv ɪz ɪˌmædʒɪˈneɪʃn̩ |

              Hi ólso zot it wuas chast a fígment of hiss ímagina’shion

              ¡Qué tontería, Dorian!

              What nonsense, Dorian!

              ˈwɒt ˈnɒnsns | ˈdɔːiən |

              Wuat nónsens, dórian!

              Volvieron arrastrando un cuerpo

              They returned dragging a body.

              ˈðeɪ rɪˈtɜːnd ˈdræɡɪŋ ə ˈbɒdi |

              Déi ri’ternd dráging a bodi

              Le pareció que la mala suerte le perseguía.

              He thought that bad luck was following him.

              hi ˈθɔːt ðət bæd lʌk wəz ˈfɒləʊɪŋ ɪm |

              Hi zot dat bad lack wuass fólouing him

               

              Chapter 18

              Spanish English Phonetics Approximate Pronunciation

              Le ruego no cambie

              I beg you not to change.

              | ˈaɪ beɡ ju nɒt tə tʃeɪndʒ |

              Ai beg iu not tu chéinch

              No he ido al club durante días

              I haven’t been to the club for days.

              ˈaɪ ˈhævn̩t biːn tə ðə klʌb fə deɪz |

              Ai hávent bin tu de klab for déiss

              No tengo la menor idea

              I haven’t the slightest idea.

              ˈaɪ ˈhævn̩t ðə ˈslaɪtɪst aɪˈdɪə |

              Ai hávent de sslaitist ai’dia

              ¿Se le ha ocurrido pensar que Basil fue asesinado?

              Has it occurred to you that Basil was murdered?

              həz ɪt əˈkɜːd tə ju ðət ˈbæzl̩ wəz ˈmɜːdəd |

              Hassit o’kerd tu iu dat bássil wuass mérded?

               

              Chapter 19

              Spanish English Phonetics Approximate Pronunciation

              El pasó caminando a dos jóvenes

              He walked past two young men.

              | hi ˈwɔːkt pɑːst tuː jʌŋ men |

              Hi wuákt pást tú íang men

              Se arrepintió de haber deseado que el cuadro cargara con el peso de sus pecados

              He regretted having wished that the portrait would bear the weight of his sins.

              hi rɪˈɡretɪd ˈhævɪŋ wɪʃt ðət ðə ˈpɔːtrɪt wʊd beə ðə weɪt əv ɪz sɪnz |

              Hi rigretid háving wuíshd dat de pórtreit wud bear de wuéitof hiss sínss

              Basil había pintado el cuadro que había arruinado su vida

              Basil had painted the portrait that had ruined his life.

              ˈbæzl̩ həd ˈpeɪntɪd ðə ˈpɔːtrɪt ðət həd ˈruːɪnd ɪz laɪf |

              Bassel had péintid de portriet dat had ruind hiss láif

              ¿Qué quería decir?

              What did it mean?

              ˈwɒt dɪd ɪt miːn |

              Wuát didit min?



                3 - Watching videos on Youtube of Public Speakers

                  I have chosen two public speakers on Youtube to show you how you can increase your vocabulary and reinforce the knowledge of structures.


                  These public speakers are Obama (American English) and the Queen of England (British English). Please, only choose one of them to increase your vocabulary. Choosing both will be harder because of the different accents.


                  Here you have Obama.


                  Here you have the Queen of England.


                  If you don’t like either of them, check out TED http://www.ted.com/ , Toastmasters http://www.toastmasters.org/or similar pages in order to find speakers that you would like to mimic. It is important that you like the speaker because it will make the exercises more fun and you’ll be more motivated.

                  What to do with these videos?

                  a) Listen to only 1 minute of each video over and over again Notice pronunciation, intonation, vocabulary and structure. In other words, pay attention to ALL the details and try to remember them by repeating them aloud.

                  Then, when you feel that you've mastered the first minute, continue with the next minute and so on until the end of the video.
                  b) Get a physical or virtual notebook and write down the new structures.

                  Example with Obama

                  In the first seconds of his speech Obama says:

                  • Tonight, after 200 years of a former colony won the right to determine its own destiny.


                  You may know all the words of this clause, but not how to express an idea with them. Therefore, you’ll have to dissect it like this:

                  "Tonight, after 200 years of a former colony."
                  - (it) won the right to determine its own destiny.


                  "Former colony", you have to visualise the time when the United States was a colony of England, and analyse the word "former" (ex).


                  You can check out other terms in wordreference which go together with the word "former”.

                  For example: former president, former wife and former husband.

                  These combinations are very important because they teach us when you can use one word with another, and when not.

                  -"Won the right". Won the right, won the match, won the race and won the lottery.

                    -"Its own destiny." Its own house, its own car and its own job.

                  Example with the Queen of England: at 1:08 minutes, she says:

                  • We've seen that it's in hardship that often we find strength from our families.

                  As we have seen in the case of Obama's speech, you may know all the words separately but not how to express them in this structure.


                  So I dissect it:

                  - We've seen that it's in hardship
                  - (That) often we find strength from our families.

                  You can imagine "hardship”. The Queen of England, for example, and the hard times she had facing the death of Diana.

                  You can look up more examples with hardship in the dictionary.


                  For example: "After a youth spent in hardship and privation"


                  You should listen to the new sentence in www.fromtexttospeech or similar free software.  


                  Notice that she says: "IN hardship" not "on hardship".


                  There is no "the" either, "the hardship" as it is in Spanish, "adversidad."

                  -to find strength. You should look up more examples of sentences with “find strength”.


                  Then, you should read them and them try to pronounce them.



                  IMPORTANT. Do not spend hours searching for vocabulary and new phrases. Take just three examples and practise for 10 minutes every day. Another day, another three examples. You always have to set short goals or otherwise you’ll end up overwhelmed and perhaps feeling like you want to stop trying.

                   

                   

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