Lesson 8
The Present Perfect

The Present Perfect

Mastering starts by being able to knock off many rough edges.


We’ll continue reviewing the basics of verb tenses.  Now, let’s take a look at “The Present Perfect”. 

 

The Present Perfect

Structure:

  • Affirmative: Subject + have/has+ main verb ending in past participle + object. Example: I have bought a new book
  • Negative: Subject + have/has+ not + main verb ending in past participle  + object. Example: She hasn’t come home yet
  • Question:  Have/has+ subject + main verb ending in past participle  + object? Example: Have you seen them?
  • Negative question: Have/has + not + subject + main verb ending in past participle + object? Example: Haven’t you seen them?
  • Answers: Yes, + subject + have/has- No, +subject+not+ have/has. Example: Yes, I have- No, I haven’t.

Example “Present Perfect” audiobook , chapter 5: Example: Mr Isaacs has been very good to us.


Spanish equivalent tense: Pretérito perfecto. It is not exactly the same, but it’s similar and can be used as a reference for you to remember the English Present Perfect. Example: Yo ya he visto esa película.  I have already seen that film.


What is the past participle of a verb?

A past participle is a form of the verb that is mainly used in:

    • Perfect Tenses:  Ex. I have studied a lot.  He estudiado mucho.
    • Passive Voices: Ex.  The house was cleaned by a cleaning company. La casa fue limpiada por una empresa de limpieza.
    • Adjectives: Ex.  The cleaned house looked like new.

In the regular verbs, the past participle is the same as the past simple and ends in –ed.


-Work (infinitive trabajar- and present yo trabajo) worked (past tense-trabajó) worked (past participle- trabajado)


In the irregular verbs, the past participle is the third column of the irregular verb list.


Example:

- Write (infinitive- escribir- escribo) – wrote (past tense-escribió) – written (past participle-escrito).


In Spanish the past participle usually ends in –ado/ido (trabajado-comido) or irregular forms such as “visto” or “escrito.”


When do we use the Present Perfect?

  1. When we want to speak about actions that have happened in the past but have present consequences or a connection to the present.

Example: I have cut my finger. I can see the blood coming out (present consequence).

  1. When we want to speak about things that we did or didn’t do in our life, experiences we have or haven’t had.

Example: I have never been to Paris.


Contractions

  • All persons except he, she and it. ‘ve- Examples: I’ve done it. You’ve seen it.
  • He, she, it: ‘s. Examples: She’s done it. It’s done